Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|Significant Accounting Policies
|Significant Accounting Policies
2.Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”).
All dollar amounts, except per share/unit amounts, in the financial statements and tables in the notes are stated in thousands of dollars unless otherwise indicated.
In these consolidated financial statements, periods prior to IPO closing on October 26, 2021 reflect the financial statements of Solaris LLC and its subsidiaries, described below (referred to herein as the “Predecessor”). Periods subsequent to IPO closing on October 26, 2021 reflect the financial statements of the consolidated Company including Aris Inc., Solaris LLC and Solaris LLC’s subsidiaries (referred to herein as the “Successor”).
On January 15, 2021, ConocoPhillips acquired Concho Resources, Inc. (“Concho”). We refer to Concho as ConocoPhillips, their successor, throughout these consolidated financial statements.
We have determined that the members with equity at risk in Solaris LLC lack the authority, through voting rights or similar rights, to direct the activities that most significantly impact Solaris LLC’s economic performance; therefore, Solaris LLC is considered a variable interest entity (“VIE”). As the managing member of Solaris LLC, we operate and control all of the business and affairs of Solaris LLC as well as have the
obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits that could be potentially significant to us. Therefore, we are considered the primary beneficiary and consolidate Solaris LLC.
The financial statements include the accounts of the Company, Solaris LLC and Solaris LLC’s wholly owned subsidiaries which include Solaris Water Midstream, LLC, Solaris Midstream DB-TX, LLC, Solaris Midstream MB, LLC, Solaris Midstream DB-NM, LLC, 829 Martin County Pipeline, LLC and Clean H2O Technologies, LLC (collectively, the “subsidiaries”). All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.
Our consolidated financial statements include noncontrolling interests related to the portion of Solaris LLC units not held by Aris Inc.
Use of Estimates
Management has made certain estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts in these consolidated financial statements and disclosures of contingencies. These critical estimates include, among others, determining the fair values of assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and/or contingent consideration paid in acquisitions or nonmonetary exchanges or disposed through sale, determining the fair value and related impairment of assets held for sale, determining the fair value of performance-based restricted stock units (“PSUs”), useful lives of property, plant and equipment and amortizable intangible assets, the fair value of asset retirement obligations (“ARO”), accruals for environmental matters, the income tax provision, valuation allowances for deferred tax assets, and the liability associated with our Tax Receivable Agreement (“TRA”) liability.
Management evaluates estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis using historical experience and other factors, including current economic and industry conditions. Actual results could differ from management’s estimates as additional information or actual results become available in the future, and those differences could be material.
Reclassification of Prior Year Presentation
Certain 2021 and 2020 amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the 2022 presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations.
We place our cash with financial institutions that are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; however, we maintain deposits in banks which exceed the amount of deposit insurance available. Management routinely assesses the financial condition of the institutions and believes that any possible credit loss would be minimal.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses
Accounts receivable consists of trade receivables recorded at the invoice amount, plus accrued revenue that is earned but not yet billed, less an estimated allowance for credit losses. Accounts receivable are generally due within 60 days or less. Management determines the measurement of all expected credit losses for accounts receivable held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the allowance for credit losses totaled $0.3 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
We generate revenue by providing services related to our Produced Water Handling and Water Solutions businesses. The services related to produced water handling are fee-based arrangements and are based on the volume of water that flows through our systems and facilities. Services related to water solutions, including the sales of recycled produced water and groundwater, are priced based on negotiated rates with the customer.
We have customer contracts that contain minimum transportation and/or disposal volume delivery requirements and we are entitled to deficiency payments if such minimum contractual volumes are not delivered by the customer. These deficiency amounts are based on fixed, daily minimum volumes (measured over monthly, quarterly or annual periods depending on the contract) at a fixed rate per barrel.
In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as we fulfill our obligations under contracts, the following steps must be performed at contract inception: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) we satisfy each performance obligation.
For all our produced water transfer and disposal contracts, revenue is recognized over time utilizing the output method based on the volume of wastewater accepted from the customer. We have determined that the performance obligation is satisfied over time as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by performance of services, typically as customers’ wastewater is accepted. We typically charge customers a disposal and transportation fee on a per barrel basis according to the applicable contract.
For some contracts, we are entitled to shortfall payments if a customer does not deliver a contractually minimum volume of water for handling over a certain period. In these cases, we recognize volumes and the revenue for the difference between the physical volumes handled and the contractual minimum. Moreover, some contracts also have a mechanism that allows for shortfalls to be made up over a limited period of time. We had long-term deferred revenue liabilities of none and $1.2 million related to these contracts as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
For contracts that involve sales of recycled produced water and groundwater, revenue is recognized at a point in time, based on when control of the product is transferred to the customer.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, or at fair value for assets acquired in a business combination, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided on the straight-line method over the estimated useful service lives of the assets, as noted below:
All costs necessary to place an asset into operation are capitalized. Maintenance and repairs are expensed when incurred. Upgrades and enhancements that substantially extend the useful lives of the assets are capitalized. When property is abandoned, retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from appropriate accounts and any gain or loss is included in earnings. Costs incurred for construction of facilities and related equipment and pipelines are included in construction in progress. Direct project costs on potential future projects are capitalized and included in construction in
progress. These costs generally relate to acquiring the appropriate permits, rights-of-way and other related expenditures necessary prior to construction. No depreciation is recorded for these assets as they have not been placed in operation. See Note 5. Property, Plant and Equipment.
Capitalization of Interest
We capitalize interest costs associated with significant projects undergoing construction that is necessary to bring them to their intended use. Interest is capitalized using an interest rate equivalent to the weighted average interest rate we pay on long-term debt, including our Senior Sustainability-Linked Notes and Credit Facility. Capitalized interest is included in the cost of property, plant and equipment and depreciated with other costs on a straight-line basis.
Asset Retirement Obligations
Our ARO relate primarily to the dismantlement, removal, site reclamation and similar activities of our pipelines, water handling facilities and associated operations. The fair value of a liability for an ARO is recognized in the period in which it is incurred. These obligations are those for which we have a legal obligation for settlement. The fair value of the liability is added to the carrying amount of the associated asset. The significant unobservable inputs to this fair value measurement include estimates of plugging, abandonment and remediation costs, inflation rates, credit-adjusted risk-free rate, and facilities lives. This additional carrying amount is then depreciated over the life of the asset. The liability increases due to the passage of time based on the time value of money until the obligation is settled. Subsequent adjustments in the cost estimate are reflected as revisions to the liability and the amounts continue to be amortized over the useful life of the related asset. See Note 7. Asset Retirement Obligations.
Definite-Lived Intangible Assets
Substantially all of our intangible assets are related to customer contracts that were acquired in connection with previous acquisitions. Amortization of these assets is based primarily on the percentage of discounted cash flows expected to occur over the lives of the contracts. See Note 6. Intangible Assets.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of a business over the estimated fair value of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Goodwill is not amortized, but instead is tested for impairment on an annual basis, or when events or changes in circumstances indicate the fair value of the reporting unit may have been reduced below its carrying value. For our reporting unit, we perform a qualitative assessment of relevant events and circumstances about the likelihood of goodwill impairment. If it is deemed more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we calculate the fair value of the reporting unit. Otherwise, management concludes that no impairment has occurred and further testing is not required. If the fair value of the reporting unit (including goodwill) is less than its carrying value, goodwill is considered to be impaired and the goodwill balance is reduced by the difference between the fair value and the carrying value of the reporting unit.
Estimates and assumptions used to perform the impairment evaluation are inherently uncertain and can significantly affect the outcome of the analysis. The estimates and assumptions we use in the annual goodwill impairment assessment include market participant considerations and future forecasted operating results. Changes in operating results and other assumptions could materially affect these estimates. We have not recognized any goodwill impairment associated with any of our acquisitions.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets, such as property, plant, equipment and definite-lived intangible assets, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be
recoverable. Individual assets are first grouped based on the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows from other assets. Management then compares estimated future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset group to its carrying amount. If the carrying amount is not recoverable, we would recognize an impairment loss equal to the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds fair value. Management estimates fair value based on projected future discounted cash flows. Fair value calculations for long-lived assets and intangible assets contain uncertainties because they require us to apply judgment and estimates concerning future cash flows, strategic plans, useful lives and market performance. We also apply judgment in the selection of a discount rate that reflects the risk inherent in the current business model. See Note 5. Property, Plant and Equipment.
Fair Value Measurements
Our financial assets and liabilities are to be measured using inputs from the three levels of the fair value hierarchy, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, which are as follows:
Level 1—Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that management has the ability to access at the measurement date;
Level 2—Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active or other inputs corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that reflect management’s assumptions that market participants would use in pricing assets or liabilities based on the best information available.
Fair Value on a Non-Recurring Basis
Nonfinancial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis include certain nonfinancial assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination, shares/units granted in acquisitions, and the initial recognition of ARO, for which fair value is used. These assets and liabilities are recorded at fair value when acquired/incurred but not re-measured at fair value in subsequent periods.
ARO estimates are derived from historical data as well as management’s expectation of future cost environments, scope of work and other unobservable inputs. As there is no corroborating market activity to support the assumptions used, management has designated these measurements as Level 3.
Additional Fair Value Disclosures
The fair value of our Senior Sustainability-Linked Notes, which are fixed-rate debt, is estimated based on the published market prices for the same or similar issues. Management has designated this measurement as Level 2. The fair value of our Credit Facility approximates carrying value as the debt bears interest at a variable rate which is reflective of current rates otherwise available to us. Management has designated this measurement as Level 3. See Note 9. Long-Term Debt.
Fair value information regarding our debt is as follows:
The carrying values of our financial instruments, consisting of cash, accounts receivable, and accounts payable, approximate their fair values due to the short maturity of such instruments.
Purchase of treasury stock represents shares of our Class A common stock received by us from employees for the payment of withholding taxes due on shares of common stock issued under our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (“2021 Plan”). We record treasury stock purchases at cost, which includes incremental direct transaction costs. Amounts are recorded as reductions in shareholders’ equity in the consolidated balance sheets.
Transaction costs are comprised of acquisition related expenses and/or expenses incurred as part of our capital restructuring activities and are included in other operating expense. Transaction costs associated with the IPO are netted against IPO proceeds, as a component of equity.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
We update our accrual for the TRA liability on a quarterly basis, based on current period conversions of Solaris LLC units, current estimates of taxable income and current income tax rates in effect at the time of the accrual. See Note 8. TRA Liability.
Income tax expense (benefit) included in our consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 is calculated based only on our allocable share of income (loss) of Solaris LLC, which is taxed as a partnership. We recognize the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. We measure current and deferred tax assets and liabilities based on provisions of enacted tax law. We evaluate the realization of our deferred tax assets based on all available evidence and establish a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that they will not be realized.
We recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the tax position.
Our policy is to recognize accrued interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in other expense in the consolidated statements of operations. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, there were no liabilities recorded for payment of interest and penalties associated with uncertain tax positions. See Note 12. Income Taxes.
Restricted stock and restricted stock units (collectively “RSUs”) and performance-based restricted stock units (“PSUs”) issued to employees and directors are recorded on grant-date at fair value. Expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the employee’s and director’s requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the award) as either operating expense or general and administrative expense in the consolidated statements of operations. We have elected to account for forfeitures as they occur (e.g., when an employee or director leaves the Company). Therefore, compensation cost previously recognized for an award that is
forfeited because of a failure to satisfy a service condition will be reversed in the period of the forfeiture. See Note 16. Stock-Based Compensation.
Earnings Per Share Attributable to Aris Inc.
We use the two-class method to give effect to participating securities in periods in which there is net income. Basic earnings (loss) per share (EPS) of our Class A common stock is computed on the basis of the weighted average number of shares outstanding during each period. The diluted EPS of our Class A common stock includes the effect of outstanding common stock equivalents, except in periods in which there is a net loss. In the event of a net loss, we exclude the effect of outstanding common stock equivalents from the calculation of diluted EPS as the inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
In addition, although we include shares of restricted stock granted to members of our Board of Directors in our count of Class A common stock outstanding, we exclude those shares of restricted stock from our EPS calculation because vesting of the restricted stock is contingent upon continued service as Board members.
All net earnings (loss) for the Predecessor period from January 1, 2021 to October 26, 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2020 were entirely allocable to Predecessor shareholders and non-controlling interest. See Note 15. Earnings Per Share.
To determine if a transaction should be accounted for as a business combination or an acquisition of assets, we first calculate the relative fair values of the assets acquired. If substantially all of the relative fair value is concentrated in a single asset or group of similar assets, or, if not, but the transaction does not include a significant process (does not meet the definition of a business), the transaction is recorded as an acquisition of assets. For acquisitions of assets, the purchase price is allocated based on the relative fair values and no goodwill is recorded. All other transactions are recorded as business combinations. We record the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination at their acquisition date fair values. Transactions in which we acquire control of a business are accounted for under the acquisition method. The identifiable assets, liabilities and any non-controlling interests are recorded at the estimated fair value as of the acquisition date. The purchase price in excess of the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded as goodwill. See Note 4. Acquisitions.
We are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. Management has established procedures for the ongoing evaluation of our operations to identify potential environmental exposures and to comply with regulatory policies and procedures. Environmental expenditures that relate to current operations are expensed or capitalized as appropriate. Expenditures that relate to an existing condition caused by past operations and do not contribute to current or future revenue generation are expensed as incurred. Liabilities are recorded, on an undiscounted basis, when environmental costs are probable and the costs can be reasonably estimated. We maintain insurance which may cover in whole or in part certain environmental expenditures. See Note 14. Commitments and Contingencies.
Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in making decisions on how to allocate resources and assess performance. Our chief operating decision maker is the Chief Executive Officer. We view our operations and manage the business as one operating segment as the assets support all revenue streams. All our assets reside in the United States.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Leases. Effective January 1, 2022, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02: Leases and its subsequent amendments (collectively, “ASC Topic 842”). ASC Topic 842 supersedes prior accounting guidance for leases and requires, among other things, lessees to recognize substantially all right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. Certain practical expedients are allowed for leases with terms of 12 months or less. ASC Topic 842 also requires disclosures designed to give financial statement users information on the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. Our adoption and implementation of ASC Topic 842 as of January 1, 2022 resulted in the recognition of ROU assets of $7.9 million and of $7.3 million.
We made policy elections not to capitalize short-term leases for all asset classes and not to separate non-lease components from lease components for all asset classes, except for real estate leases. We also did not elect the package of practical expedients that allowed for certain considerations under the original “Leases (Topic 840)” accounting standard to be carried forward upon adoption of ASU 2016-02.
ASU No. 2018-11, “Targeted Improvements,” provides a transition election not to restate comparative periods for the effects of applying the new lease standard. This transition election permits entities to change the date of initial application to the beginning of the year of adoption and to recognize the effects of applying the new standard as a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. We elected this transition approach; however, the cumulative impact of adoption in the opening balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2022 was zero.
Our accounting policy for leases is as follows:
We determine whether an arrangement contains a lease based on the conveyed rights and obligations at the inception date. If an agreement contains an operating or financing lease, at the commencement date, we record an ROU asset and a corresponding lease liability based on the present value of the minimum lease payments.
As most of our leases do not provide an implicit borrowing rate, to determine the present value of lease payments, we use our hypothetical secured borrowing rate based on information available at lease commencement. Further, we make a number of estimates and judgments regarding the lease term and lease payments.
Lease Term ─ Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet and we recognize lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Most leases include one or more options to renew, with renewal terms that can extend the lease term from one month to one year or more. Additionally, some of our leases include an option for early termination. We include renewal periods and exclude termination periods from our lease term if, at commencement, it is reasonably likely that we will exercise the option.
Lease Payments ─ Certain of our lease agreements include rental payments that are adjusted periodically for inflation or passage of time. These step payments are included within our present value calculation as they are known adjustments at commencement. Some of our lease agreements include variable payments that are excluded from our present value calculation.
Additionally, we have lease agreements that include lease and non-lease components, such as equipment maintenance, which are generally accounted for as a single lease component. For these leases, lease payments include all fixed payments stated within the contract. For real estate lease agreements, we account for lease and non-lease components separately. Our lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees that would impact our lease payments.
See Note 10. Leases.
Financial Instruments – Credit Losses. Effective January 1, 2022, we adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses and its subsequent amendments (collectively, “ASC Topic 326”). ASC Topic 326
requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The adoption of ASC Topic 326 did not have a material impact on our financial statements.
Goodwill. In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This pronouncement removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. A goodwill impairment will now be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. We adopted the standard effective January 1, 2022.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company is an “emerging growth company”, as defined in the JOBS Act. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act until those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date that we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with the new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.